The State of Israel is located on the edge of the desert, with a climate that varies between Mediterranean and arid. The average annual rainfall in the north of the country is about 1,000 mm in rainy years, and in the south, rainfall ranges between 30 mm (in the Eilat area) and 200 mm multi-year average In addition, the rainy season is short, usually only 5 or 6 months (between October and March), concentrating most of the rainfall between December and February (20, 25 and 21% respectively). Around 60% of rainwater evaporates, 30% is filtered to groundwater, and 5 to 10% flows through rivers.
The current consumption in Israel (2018) is around 2,200 Million m 3 per year, of which approximately 1,200 Million m 3 is used for agriculture (55%), 850 Million m 3 for domestic use (38%), and 150 Million m 3 are used by industry (7%). The domestic supply also includes
some 100 Million m 3 supplied to the Palestinian Authority and to the Kingdom of Jordan. In Israel, approximately 85% of wastewater treated for agriculture is recovered with different qualities and in accordance with the most demanding standards. In the Shafdan plant (WWTP for the city of Tel Aviv and surrounding areas), after the tertiary treatment, which is done by injecting into the soil the wastewater that was subjected to a secondary treatment for its natural filtration, the quality of the wastewater obtained is adequate for the irrigation of crops without restrictions and without risks for public health, it's defined as occasionally potable.
Distribution of agricultural consumption by water resources is presented below. The supply network was built based on regional projects that were later connected at the national level. This allows the most efficient management of water resources, being able to transfer surpluses from one region to another using, for example, aquifers as reservoirs to store them.
According to the Water Law, drafted in 1959, all water resources belong to the public and any water use requires a permit (or license of use) and is regulated by the Water Authority. It is worth highlighting that the term "all water resources" also includes non-traditional
sources for the time when the law was drafted, such as treated effluents and desalination water. This centralized control structure was and is used as the basis for managing water resources in Israel.
Irrigation withdrawls and reclaimed
The distribution of water resources in Israel changed over time. It is possible to see in the following Figure the composition of the same in the year 2005 and how all the changes described here influence the distribution in 2020.
Lessons learned from successful reuse
The fact sheets presented here include an analysis of the reasons behind the high rate of water reuse in Israel. Each factsheet represents a necessary component underpinning Israel success stories. Therefore, factsheets should not be seen isolated but as a whole knowledge package that can be only transferred if other aspects are also taken into account. In order to present this idea of unity, an additional summary fact sheet titled "Keys for Success" will be created. This fact sheet will be highlighting the commonalities behind the successful reuse in Israel.